Proceedings of the "Joint IOC -IUGG International
Workshop : Tsunami Risk Assessment Beyond 2000: Theory, Practice
and Plans , Moscow, June 14-16, 2000", 34-43, 2001.
TSUNAMIS IN THE EAST MEDITERRANEAN: 1. A CATALOGUE
FOR THE AREA OF GREECE AND ADJACENT SEAS
G. A. Papadopoulos,
Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, 118
10 Athens, Greece
One of the objectives of the CEC DG-XII Projects
GITEC (1992-1995) and GITEC-TWO (1996-1998) (GITEC = Genesis and
Impact of Tsunamis in the European Coasts, TWO = Tsunami Warning
and Observations) has been the preparation of a new unified European
Tsunami Catalogue. Indead, the several national groups participating
at those projects worked together to produce the new catalogue
which is of a completely new format with respect to previous catalogues.
The present report updates that of Papadopoulos
(1998) and contains the quick-look part
of the new catalogue that covers Greece and its adjacet seas,
that is the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Marmara Sea, Albanian coast
and SW coast of Turkey.
2. Explanatory Remarks
The present catalogue consists of 160 entries. The
information for each entry comes from original historical documents,
previous tsunami catalogues, scientific reports, studies or books,
and in a few cases from field observations made by the author
and collaborating people in selected coastal sites.
For each event the catalogue supplies the corresponding
ID number, the time of occurrence (YY=year, MM=month, DD=day,
hh=hour, mm=minute, ss=second), the reliability (Rel) of the time
of occurrence, the region (M1=Greek and adjacent regions in the
European Tsunami Catalogue), the genesis cause, the particular
subregion where the genesis cause is located (Lat (N) and Long
(E) are the geographical coordinates, both in degrees and minutes,
of the respective genesis cause), the reliability (Rel) of the
location in minutes, a short description of the event, the intensity
(I in MM), the surface-wave magnitute (M) and the focal depth
(H in km; n=shallow event, i=intermediate-depth event) of the
tsunamigenic earthquake (when the tsunami was due to an earthquake
event), the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of the tsunamigenic
volcanic eruption (when the tsunami was due to an eruption), the
maximum vertical tsunami run-up reported (in cm), the tsunami
intensity (TI in the Ambraseys (1962) scale), the reliability
(Rel) of the tsunami event, the magnitude of the tsunami event
(TM in the Loomis-Murty scale, when it became possible to be calculated)
and, finally, an indication showing whether the tsunami paremeters
were revised (Y) or not (N) with respect to previous catalogues.
The reliability of the time of occurrence in measured
in units of the last entry of the time of occurrence (e.g. in
years for the event number 1, in days for the event number 3,
in hours in the event number 30, etc.). The genesis causes classification
adopted by the GITEC group introduces three main types and several
subtypes of tsunami causes: earthquake (ER=submarine earthquake,
EA=earthquake-associated, EL=earthquake landslide, ES=earthquake
marine slide), volcano (VO=submarine eruption, VA=volcano-associated,
VL=volcanic landslide, VS=volcanic marine slide), slump (GL=gravitative
landslide, GS=gravitative marine slide).
For the reliability of the tsunami events a modified
version of the tsunami reliability scale of Iida (1984) was adopted
(0=very improbable tsunami, 1=improbable tsunami, 2=questionable
tsunami, 3=probable tsunami, 4=definite tsunami). Practically,
events assigned with 0 on the above scale were not included in
the catalogue. Some others, described like sea disturbances or
sea-quakes were included with reliability 1 or 2 when it is not
definitely clear that the respective event was not a tsunami.
As for the tsunami magnitude only for three events (numbered 54,
142 and 147) it has been possible to be calculated.
Some additional symbol explanation is needed: (+)
after a particular value means "equal to or larger than"
; (- ) after a particular value means "equal to or less than"
; -before the year of occurrence means "Before Christ".
An example about the organization of the new European Tsunami
Catalogue can be found in Tinti and Maramai (1996).
The complete list of references used for the compilation
of the present catalogue is very long and will appear elsewhere.
Here only a list of previous tsunami catalogues used is cited
along with papers mentioned in the present report.
Ambraseys N.N., 1962. Data for the investigation
of seismic sea waves in the Eastern Mediterranean, Bull. Seism.
Soc. Am., 52, 895-913.
Antonopoulos J., 1980. Data from investigation on
seismic sea-waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from the
Birth of Christ to 1980 AD, Annali di Geofisica, 33, (Special
Galanopoulos A.G., 1960. Tsunamis observed on the
coasts of Greece from antiquity to present time, Annali di Geofisica,
Iida, K., 1984. Catalog of tsunamis in Japan and
its Neighbouring Countries, Dept. of Civil Engin., Aichi Institute
of Technology, Japan, pp52.
Papadopoulos, G.A., 1993a. Seismic faulting and nonseismic tsunami
generation in Greece, Proc. IUGG/IOC Int. Tsunami Symposium, Wakayama,
August 23-27, 1993, 115-122.
Papadopoulos G.A. and Chalkis B.J., 1984. Tsunamis
observed in Greece and the surrounding area from antiquity up
to the present times, Marine Geology, 56, 309-317.
Papazachos B.C., Koutitas Ch., Hatzidimitriou P.M.,
Karakostas B.C. and
Papaioannou C.A., 1986. Tsunami hazard in Greece
and the surrounding area, Annales Geophysicae, 4, 79-90.
Soloviev S.L., 1990. Tsunamigenic zones in the Mediterranean
Sea, Natural Hazards, 3, 183-202.
Tinti S. and Maramai, A., 1996. Catalogue of tsunamis
generated in Italy and in Cote d' Azur, France: s step towards
a unified catalogue of tsunamis in Europe, Ann. di Geofisica,